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Iron Smelt - L'Anse aux Meadows NHSC, Newfoundland - Aug 21, 2010

Date:Aug 21, 2010

Location:L'Anse aux Meadows NHSC, Newfoundland

See also: Darrell Markewitz's ironsmelting site

Team: Darrell Markewitz, Ken Cook, Dave Cox, Richard Schwietzer plus LAM staff - Mark Pilgrim, Jessica Butler, Jake Hill (recorder Mehgan Arnott)

Premise:

  1. 1000 years ago the norse visitors at L'anse aux meadows attempted a smelt. We plan to reproduce that smelt.
  2. This marked the planned replication of the viking era smelt at the original location.

Furnace Design

TypeBoxed Short Shaft, clay/sand mix, tap arch
Extractiontop
Diameter23 cm
Height63 cm
Volume26161.695 cm3
Tuyure Typetapered steel pipe
Tuyere height from base19 cm
Tuyere penetration into furnace4.5 cm
Tuyere angle19 deg
Base designnatural set base cm

Burn Details

Bellow Typedouble bag (smleting) bellows
Avg Air rate700 litres per minute
Total Charcoal Mass30.5 Kg
Avg Burn rate14 min per 2 Kg
Ore TypeDD2
Total Mass of Ore20 Kg
Burn Duration6 Hours

Results

Mass of Bloom2.8 Kg
Bloom Typesmall pieces crumbly consistancy
Yield14%
Notes

Smelt_cd Reports of all of our iron smelting efforts along with more articles and information are available on the "Iron Smelting in the Viking Age" CD from the Wareham Forge.  Copies of the CD can be purchased here.

Discussion:


Live presentation at L'Anse aux Meadows, including a lack of time pieces.

Conclusions:




Photos:


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Smelter with StaffTeamSmelt SetupBloom
thumbnail
Day after

Raw Data:



CLOCK ELAPSED EVENT AIR CHARCOAL     ORE    
    Vinland 5 - L'Anse aux Meadows   UNIT COUNT TOTAL UNIT COUNT TOTAL
      S/S bucket   kg scoop   kg
        (‚ 1.75 kg)     (‚ .550 kg)   0.28
                   
10:00   start wood splints pre-heat              
11:25   gentle air              
11:30 (1:30) fill with ungraded charcoal       4.00      
    main sequence start              
11:47 :17 first graded charcoal   1 1 5.75      
11:52   air measure in strokes per second 93            
11:59 :12     1 2 7.50      
12:02   air measure in strokes per second 84            
12:10 :11     1 3 9.25      
12:15 (:45) column heated, first ore charge         1 1 0.55
12:16   air measure in strokes per second 104            
12:20 :10     1 4 11.00 1 2 1.1
12:30   air measure in strokes per second 96       1 3 1.65
12:36 :16     1 5 12.75      
12:49 0:13 multiple ore - combined / charcoal 92 1 6 14.50 2 5 2.75
13:02 0:13     1 7 16.25 1 6 3.3
13:05   air measure in strokes per second 84            
13:14 0:09     1 8 18.00 2 8 4.4
13:20   air measure in strokes per second 104            
13:24   air measure in strokes per second 92            
13:30 :16     1 9 19.75 1 9 4.95
13:47 0:17     1 10 21.50 3 12 6.6
13:49   air measure in strokes per second 92            
14:03 :15     1 11 23.25 2 14 7.7
14:05   air measure in strokes per second 80            
14:16 :12     1 12 25.00 2 16 8.8
14:17   slag tapped              
14:27 :11     1 13 26.75 2 18 9.9
14:29   air measure in strokes per second 96            
14:45 :18     1 14 28.50 3 21 11.55
14:46   air measure in strokes per second 88            
12:59 :14     1 15 30.25 4 25 13.75
15:03   slag tapped              
15:05   air measure in strokes per second 96            
15:18 :19     1 16 32.00 5 30 16.5
15:20   air measure in strokes per second 96            
15:29 :11     1 17 33.75 balance   20
    extra bucket to cover   1 18 35.50      
15:59 (4:30) extraction              
                   
  TOTALS Time - include pre-heat 6 hours            
    Charcoal - include rough 35.5 kg            
    Ore - DD2 20 kg            
    Bloom Yield 2.8 kg            
    % Yield 14%            
Smelt_cd Reports of all of our iron smelting efforts along with more articles and information are available on the "Iron Smelting in the Viking Age" CD from the Wareham Forge.  Copies of the CD can be purchased here.
Text © Darrell Markewitz   Photographs © Darrell Markewitz   Copyright details
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