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Concordance of Alcohol

Author: Neil Peterson
This article is hosted at:http://www.treheima.ca/viking/alcohol_concordance.html

This page is a collection of  charts for references to all of the Sagas and books on the Viking Era that I have had the time to add.  This list slowly grows as I can spare the time to work on it.  If you have any sagas / books you are willing to provide references from please email me and I will happily add your information with an appropriate accredidation to you.


INDEX

Edda, Snorri Strurlsson (tr. Anthony Faulkes), Everyman's Library #499, J.M. Dent & sons Ltd, 1987, ISBN 0460014994
            Gylfaginning
            Skaldskaparmall
            Hattatal
Gods and Myths of Northern Europe, H.R. Ellis Davidson, Penguin Books, 1964 (1975), ISBN 0140206701
Harald's Saga, Snorri Strurlusson (tr. Magnus Magnusson & Hermann Palsson), Penguin Books, 1966 (L183)
Hrafnkel's Saga & Other Stories, tr. Hermann Palsson, Penguin Books Ltd, Middlesex, UK, 1971
Njal's Saga, tr. Magnus Magnusson & Hermann Palsson, Penguin books, 1960 (1977), ISBN 0140441034
Orkneyinga Saga, tr. Hermann Palsson & Paul Edwards, Penguin Books, 1978, ISBN 0140443835
Poems of the Vikings, tr. Patricia Terry (from the Elder Edda), Bobbs-Merrill Co., Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana, 1976, ISBN 0672510529
The Saga of the Jomsvikings, tr. Lee M. Hollander, University of Texas press, Austin, TX, 1955 (1990), ISBN 0292776233
The Vinland Sagas - the Norse discovery of America ("Graelendinga & Eirik's Saga"),
            tr. Magnus Magnusson & Hermann Palsson, Penguin Books, 1965 (1980), ISBN 0140441549


Harald's Saga, Snorri Strurlusson (tr. Magnus Magnusson & Hermann Palsson), Penguin Books, 1966 (L183)
 
 

 Page   Line  Quote
85 14 Break open the wine-casks
87 14 nor drink nor eat any less or more than was his custom 
120 11 sitting in a cellar drinking
120 25 sitting and drinking
121 29 the earl was up late, drinking


The Vinland Sagas - the Norse discovery of America ("Graelendinga & Eirik's Saga"), tr. Magnus Magnusson & Hermann Palsson, Penguin Books, 1965 (1980), ISBN 0140441549

no references


Edda, Snorri Strurlsson (tr. Anthony Faulkes), Everyman's Library #499, J.M. Dent & sons Ltd, 1987, ISBN 0460014994

Gylfaginning
 

 Page   Line   Quote 
8 13 some were drinking
8 26 welcome to food and drink
17 28 mimir drinks mead
19 23 this is what people call honeydew, and from it bees feed
25 35 there the gods' watchman drinks in the pleasant hall, merry, the good mead 
31 4 serve drink and look after the tablewear and drinking vessels
31 7 should bring me a horn
31 10 serve ale to the Einheriar
33 5 wine is for him <Odin> both drink and meat
33 7 but on wine alone splendidly weaponed Odin ever lives
33 25 There is a goat called Heidrun standing on top of Val-hall feeding on the foliage from the branches of that tree whose name is well known, it is called Lerad, and from the goat's udder flows mead with which it fills a vat each day.  This is so big that all the Einheriar can drink their fill from it
34 18 But what entertainment do the Einheriar have when they are not drinking?
34 23 Ride back to Val-hall and sit down to drink
42 16 <Thor> would most willingly undertake to compete at drinking
42 18 get the forfeit horn that the men of his court were accustomed to drink from.  Next the butler came forward with the horn and handed it to Thor.  Then said Utgarda-Loki 'From this horn it is considered to be well drunk if it is drained in one draught, but some people drain it in two draughts.  But no one is such a poor drinker that it is not emptied in three.'  Thor looked at the horn, and it did not seem all that big, though it was rather long.  But he was very thirsty, began to drink and took great gulps and intended that it should not be necessary to address the horn again for the time being.  But when he ran out of breath and straightened up from the horn and saw how his drinking was progressing it seemed to hime as though there could be very little difference by which the level in the horn was now lower than before.  Then Utgarda-Loki spoke: 'That was a good drink, and not excessive.  I would not have believed it if anyone had told me that Thor of the Aesir would not have drunk a greater draught, but still I know that you will be intending to drink it off in the second draught.'  Thor made no reply, put the horn to his mouth and was determined now that he was going to drink a bigger draught and struggled with the drink as long as his breath held out, and found still that the point of the horn would not go as far up as he wanted.  And when he took the horn from his mouth and looked in, it now seemed to him as though it had gone down less than the previous time.  The level was now far enough down for the horn to be carried easily without spilling.  Then spoke Utgarda-Loki:  'What's the matter now Thor?  Are you not keeping back for one drink more than you will find easy to manage? It seems to me that if you are going to drain the horn with the third draught, then this must be intended to be the biggest one.  But here among us you will not be able to be reckoned as great a person as the Aesir say you are, if you do not give a better account of yourself in other contests than it seems to me you are going to do with this one.'  Then Thor got angry, put the horn to his mouth and drank as hard as he could and struggled for as long as possible with the drink.  And when he looked into the horn, this time it had made most of all some difference. And then he handed back the horn and would drink no more. Then spoke Utgarda-Loki:  'It is obvious now that your might is not as great as we thought.  Do you want to have a try at more contests?  It is clear that you are going to get nowhere with this one.'  Thor replied:  'I  may as well have a try at yet more contests.  But I would have been surprised when I was back at home with the Aesir if such drinks had been reckoned so slight
44 24 no lack of good cheer, food and drink
45 17 And when you were drinking from the horn and it seemed to you that it was going slowly  - I swear by my faith that then there took place a miracle that I would not have believed possible: the other end of the horn was out in the sea, and you did not notice, but now when you come to the sea then you will see what a lowering of the level you have made in the sea by your drinking.
56 4 The best place to be in heaven then will be Gimle, and there will be plenty of good drink for those that take pleasure in it in the hall called Brimir

Skaldskaparmal
 

 Page   Line   Quote 
59 5 And in the evening when they were about to start the drinking, Odin had swords brought into the hall and they were so bright that light shone from them, and no other light was used while they sat drinking
59 15 There was also strong mead there and great quantities were drunk
59 17 and they drank and conversed together
61 33 How did this craft that you call poetry originate?' Bragi replied: 'The origin of it was that the gods had a dispute with the people called Vanir, and they appointed a peace-conference and made a truce by this procedure, that both sides went up to a vat and spat their spittle into it. But when they dispersed, the gods kept this symbol of truce and decided not to let it be wasted, and out of it made a man.  His name was Kvasir, he was so wise that no one could ask him any questions to which he did not know the answer.  He travelled widely through the world teaching people knowledge, and when he arrived as a guest to some dwarfs, Fiarlar and Galar, they called him to a private discussion with them and killed him.  They poured his blood into two vats and a pot, and the latter was called Odrerir, but the vats were called Son and Bodn. They mixed honey with the blood and it turned into the mead whoever drinks from which becomes a poet or scholar. The dwarfs told the Aesir that Kvasir had suffocated in intelligence because there was no-one there educated enough to be able to ask him questions.  ... <They kill two giants whose son Suttung then arrives> ... They begged Suttung for quarter and offered him as atonement in compensation for his father the precious mead, and they were reconciled on these terms.  Suttung took the mead home with him and put it for safe keeping in a place called Hnitbiorg, setting his daughter Gunnlod in charge of it.  That is why we call poetry Kvasir's blood or dwarfs' drink or the contents or some term for liquid of Odrerir or Bodn or Son, or dwarfs' transportation, because this mead brought them deliverance from the skerry, or Suttung's mead or the liquid of Hnitbiorg.' Then spoke Aegir: 'I think it is an obscure way to talk to call poetry by these names, but how did the Aesir get hold of Suttung's mead?'  Bragi replied: ' ... <some unrelated stories removed> ...<Odin> offered to take over the work of nine men for Baugi <Suttung's brother>, and stipulated as his payment one drink of Suttung's mead.  Baugi said he had no say in the disposal of the mead, said that Suttung wanted to have it all to himself, but he said he would go with Bolverk <Odin> and try wether they could get the mead. ... <work deleted> ... Baugi told his brother Suttung of his agreement with Bolverk, but Suttung flatly refused a single drop of the mead.  Then Bolverk told Baugi that they would have to try some stratagems to see if they could get hold of the mead, and Baugi said that was a good idea.  ... < cutting a passage through the mountain deleted> ... Bolverk went to where Gunnlod was and lay with her for three nights and then she let him drink three draughts of the mead.  In the first draught he drank everything out of Odrerir, and in the second out of Bodn, in the third out of Son, and then he had all the mead.  Then he turned himself into the form of an eagle and flew as hard as he could.  And when Suttung saw the eagle's flight he got his own eagle shape and flew after him.  And when the Aesir saw Odin flying they put their containers out in the courtyard, and when Odin came in over Asgard he spat out the mead into the containers, but it was such a close thing for him that Suttung might have caught him that he sent some of the mead out backwards, and this was disregarded.  Anyone took it that wanted it, and it is what we call the rhymester's share.  But Odin gave Suttung's mead to the Aesir and to those people who are skilled at poetry.  Thus we call poetry Odin's booty and find, and his drink, and his gift and the Aesir's drink.
65 8 That magnificent hall that the Aesir called Brimir's hall or beer hall was King Priam's hall
66 14 Now I plan to tell men - long takes my pain to ease - the virtues of the hostile earl - All-Father's malt-surf [the mead of poetry] pounds [resounds]
66 28 often the kind man brought me the raven-god's [Odin's] holy drink [instructed me in poetry]
67 1 And Sigurd, he who gave raven-beer [blood]
68 2 provider of the deities' fiord [the mead of poetry whose provider is the poet]
68 6 I am mightily proud of my ancient horn-cascade [mead of poetry]
68 10 There I perceive valkyries and ravens accompanying the wise victory-tree [Odin] to the drink of the holy offering [Baldr's funeral feast]
68 21 To you we owe Fal's cup [the mead of poetry]
68 25 I shall succeed in pouring the draught of Host-Tyr's [Odin's] wine-vessel [the mead of poetry]
69 4 clean the beer-cups, the valkyries to serve the wine
69 16 [<the mead of poetry>] which the speedy one [Odin] flying bore from Surt's deep vales
69 28 I have snatched much of the mead [made a lot of poetry]
70 1 Now examples will be given of how the poets have referred to poetry using such terms as were noted above, as when it is called Kvasir's blood and dwarfs' ship, dwarfs' mead, giants' mead, Suttung's mead, Odin's mead, Aesir's mead
70 10 fiord-bone's [stone's] men's [dwarfs'] yeast-surf [mead]
70 18 let men receive Dvalin's drink [the mead of poetry]
70 22 I offer Thorstein feast [the mead] ... fell-Maerir's [giants'] wave [the mead] crashes
70 26 I bore Odin's mead to the land of the English
70 29 I begin the feast [the mead, a poem]
71 2 I desire silence for Har's ale [Odin's mead, poetry], while I raise Gilling's payment [the mead] while his descent in pot-liquid [the mead, poetry]
71 15 since about High Kin [=Hakon] Son's seed [the mead of poetry]
71 19 Hear, Egil, my streams [the mead] of Mim's friend
71 27 I bring heart-glad Olaf Hild's noise-maker's [Odin's] mind-fiord-[breast-]liquid [mead]
72 1 Poetry is called sea or liquid of the dwarfs, because the liquid in Odrerir was Kvasir's blood before the mead was made, and it was made in that cauldron, and hence it is called Odin's pot-liquid, as in the poem of Eyvind quoted above ... while his descent in pot-liquid of gallows-cargo we trace to gods. ... Poetry is also called the dwarfs' vessel or LID.  LID is also the word for ale and LID is a word for ships.  This is the origin of the expression whereby poetry is now as a result called dwarfs' ship
73 5 Sif's beloved quickly brought out his fishing gear with the old fellow.  We can stir Hrimnir's [giant's] horn-flow [mead].
73 28 held back your steads with notorious giant-feast drinker
77 2 Aesir invited him in for a drink then the goblets that Thor normally drank out of were brought out, and Hrungnir drained each one.  And when he became drunk there was no lack of big words: he said he was going to remove Val-hall and take it to giantland, but bury Asgard and kill all the gods, except that he was going to take Freyia and Sif home with him, and Freyia was the only one then who dared bring him drink, and he declared he was going to drink all the Aesir's ale.
78 1 <Thor> asked who was responsible for cunning giants being there drinking, and who had guarantied Hrungnir safety while he was in Val-hall and why Freyia should be serving him drink as if at the Aesir's banquet.  Then Hrungnir replied, looking at Thor with no friendly eyes, and said that Odin had invited him to a drink and that he was under his protection
83 19 I recite Grimnir's [Odin's] lip-streams [mead of poetry]
85 23 drink of molten metal
94 22 A woman shall be referred to by all female adornment, gold and jewels, ale or wine or other drink that she serves or gives, also by ale-vessels and by all things that it is proper for her to do or provide
95 20 At this feast everything served itself, both food and ale and all the utensils that were needed for the feast
95 37 I got from the prince fire of mackerel's seat [sea] for mountain-Fiolnir's [giant's] drink [mead of poetry]; the ruler gave it me with a cup
104 12 At this feast Gudrun had mead served to King Atli in these goblets, and it was mixed with the boys' blood
104 16 There was no shortage there of strong mead, so that nearly everyone fell asleep where they sat
106 14 Men's ale-giver [king]
111 24 were given ale to drink
114 14 enjoy Ygg's [Odin's] mead [poetry]
115 16 for ale-vessel's Bil [the woman]
115 24 threw tailoring over mead-Hrist [the woman]
116 1 Billing's son's [dwarf's] drink [poem]
130 8 maiden served mead to these prince's stipendiaries
131 4 I let be heard with liveliness my fen-teeth-[rock-]Syr's [giantess's] men's [giants'] yeast-Rhine [mead of poetry]
132 18 Poets call me Vidur's [Odin's] thought-smith, getter of Gaut's [Odin's] gift, lack-nought hero, server of Ygg's [Odin's] ale, song-making Modi, skilled smith of rhyme
133 17 Again we have produced Yule-beings' feast [mead of poetry]
133 20 The land-getter, who binds the straight mast-top, honours the provider of the deities' fjord [the mead of poetry] with a head-band.
136 17 geri's ales [blood]
139 7 I will for storm-cleaver's [<feeder>] work noble [<Odin's>] mead [poetry]
143 2 Next I see a finely inscribed serpent on the splendid yeast-flood [ale] tunic [horn]
158 34 ale-tarry

 

Hattatal
 

 Page   Line   Quote 
173 9 I am practiced in the wolf's danger's [Odin's] wine making [poetry composing] 
182 17 The company of me is made sleepy by the ale
183 1 The prince gladdens the ships' crews with pure lakes of horns [drink].  The horn does not get to dry out too much.  Mead keeps back men's miseries.  The bold-hearted king who holds shields in front of missiles gives generously old honey-waves [mead] to army-rod-[sword]trees [warriors].
183 17 The king gives currents of yeast - that is what I adjudge ale to be - to men.  Men's silence is dispelled by surf - that is old beer - of horns.  The prince knows how speech's salvation - that is what mead is called - is to be given.  In the choicest of cups comes - this is what I call wine - dignity's destruction
214 22 good is the house of Hladir - the ale-sated court.  The Prince drinks the harmers of the circle-wand happy
215 1 Where the lord drinks, very pleasant to men is the happy cup's stream [ale]
216 24 The happy band of men was able to receive mead together with gold from the ruler.  He lets the troop drink at his place a fair wine served in silver


Njal's Saga, tr. Magnus Magnusson & Hermann Palsson, Penguin books, 1960 (1977), ISBN 0140441034
 
 

Page Line Quote
41 29 Ozur invited them into his booth to drink, they had their horses unsaddled, and then went in and drank with him
44 21 Gizur stood up to welcome them and invited them to sit and drink
44 14 the king sat drinking after his meal
45 10 Then she sat down beside Hrut and they drank together
45 15 the next morning they drank together
50 5 the feasting and drinking began
88 27 you have been kinder to others than yourself today, for you have quenched their thirst forever.' Kolskegg took a full bowl of mead, drained it , and returned to the fight
96 32 drinking & being merry


Orkneyinga Saga, tr. Hermann Palsson & Paul Edwards, Penguin Books, 1978, ISBN 0140443835
 
 

Page Line Quote
48 9 One day the Earl was drinking on board
56 2 He made something of a name for himself in Orkney by feasting his men, and others too, people of great reputation, on meat and drink throughout the winter ...Through serpent-sleep of winter, the splendid son of Rognvald drank his draughts, glory-drenched
69 9 It was night-time and most of the men had gone to sleep, but the Earl was still drinking
70 6 Just before Christmas he went with a large band of men to Papa Strensay to fetch malt for the Christmas ale.
71 9 they took the cargo boat, loaded it with malt
72 4 The King acknowledged his greeting and, seeing him eat the bread, offered him the cup
72 35 and once he was seated they began to drink and enjoy themselves
85 17 made Magnus Erlendsson his cup bearer and he used to serve at the king's table
96 6 serving drink to the Earl ... When the drink was beginning to take effect
110 9 in the tavern where Kali was drinking
110 12 the tavern they were drinking at
111 14 went to the same tavern as before ... was also there in the tavern
111 19 stayed up drinking.  A good many things were said as they got drunk ... and when the ale began to talk
125 12 There was a great drinking-hall at Orphir ... on the left as you came into the hall was a large stone slab, with a lot of big ale vats behind it
125 25 In the evening after they had finished drinking, the Earl and most of his guests went to bed.
125 30 After the Earl, Eyvind Melbrigdason was the senior man at the feast so he did not sit down, but served the two Sveins from two separate vessels, while the cup-bearers and boy attendants stood in front of the Earl's table. Then Svein Breast-rope got the idea that Eyvind was filling up his cup more than that of Svein Asleifarson and even taking Svein Asleifarson's cup before he'd finished it, so he claimed that the other Svein was not playing fair at the drinking.  ...  After they had carried on drinking for some time they went out for Nones, then came back and drank toasts from horns.  Next, Svein Breast-rope wanted to exchange horns with his namesake, believing that Svein Asleifarson's was smaller.  Eyvind thrust a large horn into the hand of Svein Asleifarson who offered it to the other Svein. ... They kept drinking till Vespers and when the Earl went out Svein Asleifarson walked ahead of him, but Svein Breast-rope stayed behind, still drinking.... Did you hear what the other Svein said when you handed him the horn?
138 31 In the evening, after the drinking
143 12 he himself served at table as cup-bearer
148 4 accompanied by the Earl who had Svein Hroaldsson as his cup-bearer
158 23 the bard speaks, brainwashed with Odin's brew
163 13 Arni bought some malt
164 35 and carrying a serving bowl of gold
166 1 she served the Earl ... The Earl took her hand along with the bowl
166 21 They sailed round Thrasness with a good wind, then sat and drank contentedly
169 30 Ermingerd the exquisite once offered me her wine
170 31 Once the wine-serving wench understood me
172 17 I spent in my cups, content
188 16 On Gairsay drinking with his men
188 24 they got on with their drinking just as before
188 33 after spending the day drinking
197 10 where they spent each day drinking in a great hall
197 20 Gils had brewed some ale and wanted to entertain Svein and his men
198 5 tried to rouse the Earl, but couldn't because Erlend was dead-drunk
200 36 Svein poured all his ale down the drain
203 3 would often sit drinking in some house
206 16 for a while they all sat drinking
207 20 during a drinking session
207 22 Thorarin's drinking friends
208 9 into a tavern where Thorarin was drinking
210 26 inside Thorbjorn Clerk sat drinking
215 7 His drinking hall was so big, there was nothing in Orkney to compare with it
216 6 with all the wine and English mead
218 14 set up partition walls in the great drinking hall


The Saga of the Jomsvikings, tr. Lee M. Hollander, University of Texas press, Austin, TX, 1955 (1990),
                                                ISBN 0292776233
 

Page Line Quote
51 5 king sat at table drinking
59 5 so men sat down to drink
59 8 and then the king and his men began to drink
84 16 King Svein saw to it that the Jomsvikings were served the most powerful drink ... dead drunk
87 23 Sigvaldi replied that one was not responsible for what one said over the cups
90 19 Earl at table drinking


Poems of the Vikings, tr. Patricia Terry (from the Elder Edda), Bobbs-Merrill Co., Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana, 1976,
                                    ISBN 0672510529
 

Page Line Quote
6 11 it lies in the water of Mimir's well
    Every morning Mimir drinks mead
    from Warfather's tribute.
7 18 a giant's beer-hall; Brimir is his name
14 23 If a man takes with him a mind full of sense
    he can carry nothing better;
    nothing is worse to carry on your way
    then a head heavy with beer.
14 27 Beer isn't such a blessing to men
    as its supposed to be;
    the more you swallow, the less you stay
    the master of your mind.
15 1 The mind-stealing heron hovers over feasts
    waiting to seize men's wits
    that bird's feathers fettered me
    when I came to Gunnlod's court
15 5 I was drunk, four sheets to the wind
    at Fjalar's feast
    from the best carousing a man will come
    to his senses soon again
15 13 The stupid man on a visit stares,
    he mutters or he mopes
    all he has to do is take a drink
    and what wit he has collapses
16 1 Don't cling to the cup but drink your share,
    speak useful words or be silent
    no one will blame you for bad manners
    if you go to bed early
22 18 To many houses I came too early
    to others much to late
    the beer was all gone or they hadn't brewed it yet
    unwelcome guests find no feasts
24 26 Praise the day at nightfall, a woman when she's dead
    a sword proven, a maiden married,
    ice you've crossed, ale you've drunk.
25 3 Drink ale by the fireside, skate on the ice,
    buy lean steeds and bloodstained swords,
    fatten horses in the stable, a dog in your home.
28 7 From her gilded chair Gunnlod gave me
    a cup of costly mead
    an ill reward she had in return
    for her quick kindness
    for her heavy heart
28 16 from a good-looking bargain I gained a lot
    and so the wise lack little
    now the mead that's the poet's muse
    can be drunk in human dwellings
28 note ... in which Odin obtains the mead of inspiration and makes it available to true poets.  The giantess Gunnlod gave him the mead at the expense of her father Suttung.
29 1 Odin didn't honour the oath on the ring-
    what good is any pledge he gives?
    Suttung died of a poisoned drink,
    and Gunnlod grieves.
32 28 Head my words, Loddfafnir, listen to my counsel;
    you'll be better off if you believe me
    follow my advice, and you'll fare well:
    I bid you be careful, but don't overdo it;
    watch out for ale or another man's wife,
    and don't let thieves play you tricks.
34 1 Head my words, Loddfafnir, listen to my counsel;
    you'll be better off if you believe me,
    follow my advice, and you'll fare well:
    the Earth's might can help you if you're drinking mead
    Earth fights ale, fire fights sickness;
    choose oak if you're constipated, corn against witchcraft, elder for household strife - the moon soothes hatred -
    alum for cattle sickness, runes for misfortune
    Earth fights floods.
34 17 They brought me no bread, no horn to drink from
51 17 The goat Heidrun, stands on Warfather's hall
    and bites off Laerad's branches;
    the cask she fills with clearest mead
    can't be drunk dry
52 12 Too much ale, Geirrod, muddled your mind,
    trusted friends betrayed you;
    can see my own friend's sword
    its blade all wet with blood
55 27 Invite the stranger to come inside   bring him a glass of beer
59 5 there among the tree roots wretched slaves
    shall give you goatpiss!
    Nothing else shall you ever drink
    maiden, by your own will.
59 15 To your health, fair youth! Accept this foaming cup filled with fine mead!
69 2 ... so as to win a cauldron in which Aegir would brew beer
69 5 The gods were happy - they'd had a good hunt
    and felt like feasting; they found out,
    by shaking small branches steeped in blood
    that Aegir had everything for brewing ale.
 Meek and gentle, merry as a child,
    sat the giant when Odin's son
    looked him in the eye and loudly commanded,
    'You shall brew ale to please the Aesir'
 Thor's tone of voice vexed the giant
    Aegir resolved to take revenge.
    He bade Sif's husband bring his own cauldron;
    'In it I'll brew the Aesir's ale'"
70 11 But a white browed damsel dressed in gold  welcomed the Aesir and brought them ale
73 8 A man may look strong rowing in the sea
    and weak when he tries to crack a cup
 When Hlorridi took the goblet in his hand
    and flung it, columns crashed to the floor;
    from where he sat he splintered stone,
    yet back to Hymir they brought the cup whole.

...'Aim at Hymir's head!  it must be harder -
  with all he consumes - than any cup
 Then the stern goat-master, Thor, stood up
    and threw the goblet with godly power.
    As for Hymir, his head stayed whole;
    the round wine cup cracked and fell apart
 A great prize that I possessed
    has gone forever with that goblet
    And Hymir added: 'But I must hold
    still to the bargain - your ale is brewed.

74 22 The assembled gods saw Thor arrive
    carrying Hymir's mighty cauldron;
    thanks to his deeds they all would drink
    beer brewed by Aegir's blazing fire
75 4 Aegir, who was also called Gymir, brewed ale for the Aesir
75 14 Cups filled themselves with ale
75 18 Then they went back to their drinking
75 23 what say the Aesir over their ale
76 1 among the Elves and Aesir drinking ale
76 6 I'll bring the Aesir to bitter strife,  mix bad luck with their mead
76 23 here is Lopt, dying for a drink  won't someone bring me mead?
77 6 that never again would you take a drink of ale  unless it was brought to us both
77 13 Then Vidar stood up and poured mead for Loki.  But before Loki drank he said...
78 24 too much beer made Bragi talk  and I told him to keep quiet
83 19 I'm proud and happy to be where Hropt's sons  all drink ale together
83 27 Loki, you're drunk!  You've lost your wits
    Why can't you control yourself?
    Drinking too much will make any man
    say stupid things.
87 1 You brewed the ale Aegir - never again  will you hold a feast in your hall
91 13 It was early evening when they arrived;
    the giants sat down to drink their ale.
    One whole ox, eight of the salmon,
    the dainty dishes meant for the ladies,
    Thor consumed, with three casks of mead.
Then said Thrym, king of giants,
    I've never seen a bride with such sharp teeth!
    Never did a bride take bigger bites,
    nor any maiden drink more mead
98 1 Wiser than Bodvild, he brought her beer
106 19 Men call it barley, the gods say Bear Grain,
    the vanir name it High Growing,
    the giants Edible, the Elves Beer Maker,
    in Hel it's Hanging Head
Thor said:
    Tell me Alvis - dwarf, I think you know
    all that has ever happened -
    what is the ale called that all men drink
    in every one of the worlds?
Alvis said:
    Men call it ale, the Aesir Beer
    the Vanir say Strong Drink
    giants say Cloudless, in Hel they call it Mead,
    for Suttung's sons it's Feast Maker
111 5 We are bound for other business  than drinking beer with you ring-breakers.
125 5 You'll pay for this when you drink from the toasting cup
125 7 That evening the men were making vows.  A sacrificial boar was led forward; they laid their hands on it and made vows as they drank from the toasting-cup
125 21 I swore on the toasting-cup a solemn oath
138 19 We'll fill our cups with costly wine
147 12 Together you will drink at the double wedding
167 15 Sigurd asked her to teach him wisdom if she had knowledge of all the worlds.  Then she took a horn full of mead and gave him a drink which would make him remember

Sigrdrifa said:
    First I will bring beer to the warrior-
    might brewed it, mingled with fame-
    full of spells and potent songs,
    rich in charms and runes of joy.
I shall teach you the runes of triumph
    to have on the hilt of your sword -
    some on the blade, some on the guard;
    then call twice on Tyr.
Ale-runes you will want if another man's wife
    tries to betray your trust;
    scratch them on your drinking horn, the back of your hand  and the need rune on your nail.
With this sign your horn can never harm you;
    dip a leek in your drink;
    then I know you will never find
    death mixed into your mead."
I'll teach you lore for helping women in labour
    runes to release the child
    write them on your palms and clasp her wrists
    invoking the DIsir's aid.
I can show you runes to calm the surf
    and bring sail-steads to safety;
    write them on the prow and on the rudder
    blaze them into the oar-blades
    No seas are so black, no breakers so wild
    but that you'll escape the storm.
Here are the limb-runes that heal the sick
    and close the worst of wounds;
    write them on the bark of a forest tree
    with eastward-bending branches.
I'll give you speech-runes so none will seek
    to do you harm out of hatred;
    wind some, weave some,
    twist them all together,
    carry them with you where men hold court
    and many meet at the Thing.
Mind-runes will let you surpass all men
    because your wits are wiser;
    read some, write some
    they come from Odin's cries;
    and you shall learn the lore that leaked
    from Heiddraupnir's skull,
    from Hoddrofnir's horn.
He stood on a mountain, his sword unsheathed,
    with a helmet on his head.
Then Mimir's head spoke
    the first wise word
    and told true runes.
On the shield that stands before the shining god
    on Arvakr's ear and Alsvinn's hoof
    on a wheel revolving under Hrungnir's chariot
    on Sleipnir's teeth, on the straps of a sled
    on a bear's paw, on Bragi's tongue
    on the claws of a wolf and an eagle's beak,
    on bloody wings and a bridge's head
    on a midwife's hand, on the footprints of help
    on glass, on gold, on good-luck charms
    in wine, in wort, on the wished-for chair
    on Gungnir's point and Grani's breast
    the nail of a Norn a night-owl's beak
Whatever they were scratched on they were scraped off
    and mixed with holy mead:
    sent far and wide,
    some to the Aesir, soem to the Elves,
    some to the Vanir
    some to the sons of men.
There are runes of beech-wood, others help at births,
    and all the ale-runes,
    promises of power
    Whoever holds them unbroken, unchanged,
    will have good luck
    and be glad of his lore
    until the day of doom.

171 22 Sixth, when men sit drinking ale,
    and the talk is turning hostile,
    don't dispute with drunken warriors-
    wine steals the wits of many.
Ale and fighting words, you'll often find,
    are sources of sorrow
175 21 It was late in the evening, much ale had been drunk no harsh words were heard in the hall; then they were sleepy and went to bed
182 8 Sigurd the Volsung and Gjuki's sons drank and talked many days together
199 5 Then Grimhild handed me a full horn to drink
    cool and bitter, that cast out grief;
    in it was mixed the might of Earth
    the ice-cold sea, and the blood of swine.
Carved on the horn were many runes
    painted red - I could not read them -
    a long serpent out of the sea,
    an ear of corn, entrails of beasts.
Baleful things were mixed in that beer,
    herbs from the forest, fire-blackened acorns,
    the hearth's dew, soot, entrails of sacrifices,
    boiled swine's liver, soothing to sorrow
206 26 When I gave a drink to Gunnar
210 3 He came to Gjuki's court; in Gunnar's hall
    where benches ringed the hearth he drank sweet beer.
The Gjukings wary, watching the Hun
    drank in silence and kept their toughts secret
211 16 Then spoke Gunnar as a king should,
    proud in his mead-hall, a mighty warrior:
Fjornir, arise!  Fill the golden horns
    with good wine for every warrior
212 9 Atli sat drinking there in his great hall
212 14 she had drunk little beer
214 27 Gudrun came to welcome Atli,  offered the king a gilded cup
215 3 Ale cups echoed, heavy with wine
215 6 Bright faced Gudrun served them drink;
    to the yellow-beaked warrior, against her will,
    she offered ale-dainties, then reviled Atli:
Now has the sword-wielder eaten his sons'
    gory hearts made sweet with honey!
    Digest the ale-dainties of dead men's flesh
    sent to your high seat, that drunk you devoured!
Never again will you call to your knees
    Erp and Eitil, merry with ale
216 5 Atli, unwary, had drunk himself weak
216 10 the bed drank blood
227 12 She set the ale flowing at a feast for her brothers;
    Atli did the same in honour of his dead.
    They spoke no more about it; the mead was made ready
228 14 Your two sons most terribly were taken from you:
    their empty skulls, Atli, you used as ale-cups,
    the mead I brought you was blended with their blood.
228 24 Grim and Cruel your deed was Gudrun,  to blend my mead with the blood of my children
239 18 Merry was the hall, the men cheered by ale
240 3 Jormunrek laughed; he stroked his beard,
    longing for battle, wild with wine
    shook his brown hair, looked at his bright shield,
    and closed his fist around a golden cup
240 16 There were sounds of tumult, ale-cups were shattered
242 28 The mead was brewed to welcome Balder  A shield lies over the shinig drink


Gods and Myths of Northern Europe, H.R. Ellis Davidson, Penguin Books, 1964 (1975), ISBN 0140206701
 

Page Line Quote
28 21 and on mead which flowed instead of milk from the udders of Heidrun
28 25 horns of mead
34 5 Thor made trial of his strength in a drinking contest
34 33 The horn offered to Thor
40 5 "The winning of the Mead" story
41 8 The Aesir allow him to drink from Thor's great beakers ..why a giant was drinking
68 21 drink its blood
70 17 between battle and drinking
70 35 the vows made at the ale drinking
73 26 his capacity for eating and drinking
73 28 and three cups of mead
74 1 epic drinking contest
74 5 a mighty cauldron in which mead could be prepared
74 18 Thor's delight in eating and drinking
81 1 over the cup passed round in honour of the gods
81 4 he made the mark of the hammer over it before he drank
88 20 A folk custom still known in England is the raising of a branch from the roof or chimney of a house when the builders have finished the roof (with free drinks all round)
93 31 now the god was able to eat and drink with men
94 31 Eric greeted the god, drank a horn in his honour
108 17 On a more popular level there are the legends of John Barleycorn, whose 'passion', the beating, soaking, and crushing of the barley grains for the making of ale, is celebrated in many folk-songs.  In Asgard there is a minor figure called Byggvir (Barley) who appears in the Edda poem Lokasenna.  Loki mocks at him because he is always chattering in the ear of Freyr, and he has a companion called Beyla, whose name Dumezil ingeniously interprets as 'bee', symbolizing the other favourite drink, mead made from honey.
129 2 The ale-brewer would be no more
130 7 it was to obtain a suitable cauldron for the mead at another of Aegir's feasts
133 31 <from the sutton hoo ship> cups, and drinking horns from the banqueting hall" also ref. R.L.S Bruce-Mitford, 'the Sutton Hoo Ship-burial' Proc. Suffolk Inst. of Archaeology (Ipswitch), 25, 1949, pp I ff
144 17 by meat nor drink
145 footnote Odin is shown hanging from the tree on an early Swedish carved stone along with scenes that seem to belong to the story of the gaining of the mead.
146 28 Another version of the story of his relations with Mimir is that he sacrificed one of his eyes so that Mimir, the giant guardian of the spring of the underworld, would permit him to drink from it, and so gain wisdom
147 35 but also to obtain the mead of inspiration
149 17 feasted on pork and mead
150 2 soon we shall be drinking ale from the curved horns
150 9 drink ale in the high seat
157 15 did not possess the mead of inspiration
164 25 the cup from which men drank the funeral ale ... over which solemn oaths might be sworn, was called the bragarfull or 'cup of Bragi'.  This means the leader's cup.
164 36 the funeral drink
167 22 mead created out of the body of Kvasir
167 25 his name comes from Kvas, the word for strong beer used by the eastern neighbours of the Germans, and still used in Jutland for crushed fruit
167 29 Unpleasant as the idea seems to a modern mind, use of saliva may have been a primitive method of fermentation and in the figure of Kvasir we seem to see something akin to John Barleycorn, symbol of the sacrifice of the fruits of the earth to give the drink of good fellowship and inspiration.
185 37 here stands brewed mead for Balder, shinning cups
195 7 her milk becomes shining mean to provide drink for the warriors in Valhalla
195 12 they are nourished on morning dew
195 14 'mead tree' because of this conception of its life giving liquid


Hrafnkel's Saga & Other Stories, tr. Hermann Palsson, Penguin Books Ltd, Middlesex, UK, 1971
 

Page Line Quote
43 29 I'll supply your household with plenty of milk in the summer
82 5 He used to make money at the Althing brewing ale, and through this he got to know all the important people, who bought more ale than most.  As often happens, not everybody thought much of the ale, and the man who sold it wasn't always well liked either
84 5 Ale-hood came to the Althing too, hoping to sell his ale.  He went to see the friends who used to buy ale from him and asked them for help.  He offered to sell them ale ... no one was willing to help him or even to buy his ale
105 22 When they we drinking together
112 1 can't keep up any longer with court customs, such as drinking toasts
112 6 I give you leave to drink not a drop more than you want to
112 12 One evening the king happened to pass by the bench where these three men were drinking
      Updated: 4 Dec, 2007
Text © Neil Peterson, 2006   Copyright details
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